MODULE 04

ETEC 648
HOMEWORK: MODULE 4
VICTOR S BAROCAS

1. Choose a theme for your annotated bibliography. It would be best if you chose something related to your eventual project!
In broad terms, my goal is to develop a manageable project that furthers my goal of becoming a consultant who help to gain a better return on corporate dollars invested in employee development and organization change.
Breaking this down a bit:

• The target populations are adults and corporate managers.

• Concepts of androgogy and, the more recent concept, heutogogy will be employed. or the more recent interest in Heutagogy.

• Using a systems model, adult employees managers (i.e., the dependent variable) will be viewed as human capital, an asset that will appreciate that can appreciate in value.

• Human performance technology (HPT), the “systematic approach improving performance competencies”, will be the framework to create initiatives to increase employees value. [Other research for today’s homework suggests HPT may not be a correct approach.

• On-line and blended learning are the tools that I plan to use to implement the initiatives.
As conducting an assessment or test the model is not feasible, my suggestion is that I
• Pare down the study scope.
• Articulate a viable model that can be tested.
• Create parameters/criteria/measurement criteria.
2. Locate at least 10 high quality articles related to your theme and prepare a citation list or bibliography including all 10 articles.
Two points:
• Several of the articles are not available through either the internet or the library: the person requesting the article must be an active (i.e., paid) association member.
• For those articles that do not deal directly address e-Learning or blended learning, the article review identifies the ramifications for e-Learning and blended learning.
Bezuidenhout, J, van der Westhuizen, D., & de Beer, K.J. Andragogy: A Theortetical Overview on Learning Theories that Impact on Benchmarking Blended Learning at the Central University of Technology, Free State (n.d.). Sabinet, 3(2). http://reference.sabinet.co.za/webx/access/electronic_journals/int erim/interim_v3_n2_a2.pdf

Carliner, S. (2013). Human Performance Technology and HRD. New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 26 (1), 31-41. doi: 10/10021

Geri, N., Gafni, R., & Winer, A. (2014). The U-Curve of E-Learning: Course Websiteand Online Video Use in Blended and Distance Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 10, 1-16. Retrieved from: http://www.ijello.org./Volume10/IJELLOv10p001016Geri0473.pdf

Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2007). Heutagogy: A Child of Complexity Theory. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education 4 (1), 111-117. Retrieved from: http://wigan-ojs.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/complicity/article/viewFile/8766/7086

Holton III, E.F., Wilson, L. S., & Bates, R.A. (2009). Toward Development of a Generalized Instrument to Measure Andragogy. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20 (9), 169-193. doi:10.1002/hrdq.2014.

Hussein-Faraj R, Barak, M., and Yehudit, J.D. (2012). Lifelong Learning at the Technion: Graduate Students’ Perceptions of and Experiences in Distance Learning. Proceedings of the Chais Conference on Instructional technologies Research. http://www.openu.ac/research_center/chais2012/papers.html

Kenyon, C. & Hase, S. (2001). Moving from Andragogy to Heutagogy in Vocational Education. Procedings of the 4th Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association Conference, Aledaide, Australia, 1-9. http//www.averta.org.au.PAPAERS%202001/Kenyon%220haseChase.pdf

Lepak, D.P. & Snell, S.A. (1999). The Human Resource Architecture: Toward a Theory of Human Capital Allocation and Development. The Academy of Management Review, 24 (1) 31-48. http://www.jstor.org/stable/259035

Mirriam, S.B. (2001). Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning: Pillars of Adult Learning Theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 3-13. Retrieved from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu.d0.1002/ace.3/pdf

Tan, K. & Waxman, L. (2013) Designing for Virtual Learning Spaces: A Second Life Example. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 4 (2), 72-79. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/ijdl/article/view/3687/3662

Citation:
Bezuidenhout, J, van der Westhuizen, D., & de Beer, K.J. Andragogy: A Theortetical Overview on Learning Theories that Impact on Benchmarking Blended Learning at the Central University of Technology, Free State (n.d.). Sabinet, 3(2). http://reference.sabinet.co.za/webx/access/electronic_journals/int erim/interim_v3_n2_a2.pdf
Summary:
The authors address the feasibility of creating and benchmarking blended learning programs at the Central University of Technology, Free State in South Africa.
The article asserts that andragogy is the preferred model to teach adult learners. Further the authors extract key principles from psychological and learning theories.
Behaviorism: From the behaviorist vantage point, “observable, measurable and controllable objectives are core to any distance and blended learning. The brain is the proverbial “black box”.
Cognitivism: Cognitivism expands to learning to include the internal mental process. Mental structures include the path to learning as well information storage and retrival. Cognitive development is a cause of learning. To assist in the learning process:
• Learners need to learn using as many sensory modalities as necessary
• Extracting long term memory can be used to learn new information.
• Chunking not only allows the learner to acquire information without overload, it also allows for learning new information in a different format.
• It is real life situations that result in higher/deep learning.
Constructivism: By engaging and being active in the learning process, learners build (i.e., construct) their own understanding of complex information.
Constructivism is especially important to adult learners. Here, blended learning, an outcome focused approach, can employ computers to help simulate multiple vantage points and challenge the individual needs of each learner.
The didactics of andragogy. The authors indicate that an andragogical model must be learner-centric approach, and recognize the unique nature of each adult. The approach needs to be tailored to the learner, and not vice versa. Further, well articulated learning outcomes are required. The reasons include:
• Learners are adults and know what they need to learn. However, they need to know the “why” before the content.
• Self-direction leads to greater self-concept. In on-line learning, adults must want to be there.
• Self-directed learning results in personal prioritization. With on-line learning, adults can better reprioritize when they are free to work at their own schedule.
• Experiential learning, especially with on-line learning affords adults opportunities to employee concepts to the real world.
• Learner readiness reflects the adult’s recognition that the there will be actual opportunities and situations where the learning can be applied.
• Transformational learning happens when the learning becomes deep learning.
Review:
This long, lengthy article (i.e., some 20+ pages in small type) seemed to address a number of characteristics and learning principles; however, it only tangentially touched upon blended learning and did not at all address the topic of benchmarking.
While I might recommend the article for a highly detailed look at different models and principles vis a vis andragogy, in no way could it be recommended for a clear presentation on either blended learning or benchmarking.

Citation:
Carliner, S. (2013). Human Performance Technology and HRD. New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 26 (1), 31-41. doi: 10/10021

Summary:
This conceptual/qualitative analysis of Human Performance Technology (HPT) and Human Resource Development (HRD) asserts that both approaches have the same end goal: increasing employee productivity. For the analysis the author 1) refers to HPT’s definition of “performance” as a body of systems that increase employee performance; 2) takes a critical look at what HPT does and doesn’t achieve; and 3) looks at the relationship between HPT and HRD.

Defining Performance. For the author, performance goes beyond behavior; it is the intended outcomes of actions and can be considered the dependent variable of training and development. Performance can also be affected by other organization factors, like culture and “work processes”.

In the context of HPT, performance is an outcome driven model derived from the application of organization systems that produce better performance. Instructional System Design (ISD) is one approach.

From the HPT vantage point, unintended outcomes can be the outcome of forces like lack of support, conflicting messages, forgetting what was learned, et al.

Critical analysis of HPT. The author takes a critical look at the purported benefits of an HPT approach, like: understanding why desired and actual outcomes differ, its methodological approach in increasing performance, and the belief that HPT results in both more productive and satisfied employees.

While there are several reasons, the author notes that HPT does not produce more satisfied employees. Other criticisms include: HPT is less effective than the ISD approach to improving employee performance; HPT is not a model, but a methodology; a lack of research data to support the HPT approach.

The relationship between HPT and HRD. The reasons cited for looking to HRD and not HPT include:

• HPT concepts have made their way into HRD, and not vice versa.
• HPT is too broad; it can include “any intervention”.
• HPT is deeply rooted in education, while HRD is truly multidisciplinary.
• HRD looks to multiple interventions (e.g., coaching, OD). HPT seems too grounded in the education model.

Review:
This non-empirical article takes on a debate that appears to have been going on for some time. It is clear while reading the analysis that the author is biased against HPT. And in some ways has created a the proverbial “strawman” to make his argument.

What is clearly lacking is a need to better look at HRD through the lenses of Society for Human Resource Development (SHRM) or Association for Training and Development (ASTD)

Citation:
Hussein-Faraj R, Barak, M., and Yehudit, J.D. (2012). Lifelong Learning at the Technion: Graduate Students’ Perceptions of and Experiences in Distance Learning. Proceedings of the Chais Conference on Instructional technologies Research. http://www.openu.ac/research_center/chais2012/papers.html

Summary:
The authors cite a 100 year old history of distance learning beginning with correspondence courses evolving into teaching through audiovisual and other means to what is happening today: multi-media education through computers and other workstations that are both synchronous and asynchronous.

For this study, the authors apply a “transactional distance theory” that allows for distance and time to be intervening variables that effect learning.

Comparing groups of on-line and f2f students the stated goals of the study were:
• How do science and engineering graduate students perceive on-line learning?
• Are there gender differences in how on-line learning is perceived?
• Does distance learning have an impact on the learning experience?

Students participated in one of two classes: Innovation Management or Cell to Tissue. Also, students self-selected as to being in f2f or DL classes.

Authors broke their assessments into three phases:
• Initial survey screening with all potential f2f and DL students
• Comparative assessment comparing the initial student surveys to their responses to the same survey after the class is over.
• Focused responses to live (or in some cases, Skype) interviews after the 2nd survey.

Three key findings of the study include:
• All students had a high rating of DL, with those having experienced DL in the past reporting a statistically higher rating of DL.
• DL students expressed a statistically lower satisfaction when it came to faculty interaction and peer collegiality
• Although not statistically significant students with DL experiences report a higher satisfaction with DL post course.
• While initial attitudes toward DL between male and female students were not all that great, post-class attitudes showed a statistically, significant differences: DL male students were far more favorably inclined than DL female students.

Review:
The article provides some insights into: student decision-making process when selecting a way to be taught, those who elect DL in contrast to f2f learning, as well as gender differences.

Clearly, this sample is clearly technologically savvy. In other words, can the same or similar findings be expected with courses in the humanities and fine arts.

Also, the findings suggest that there needs to be a more effective introduction to DL would increase student satisfaction post class.

Lastly, there is a suggestion that DL for female students requires greater exploration.

Citation:
Hopkins, P.C., Cowell, C.E., Jorden, D. McWhorter, R., Dobbs, R.L., & Allen, W.C. (2006). Technology’s Impact in Human Resource Development across the Life Span: Pedagogy Starts with Andragogy. Eric: files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492743.pdf

Summary:
Citing sources that note the pervasiveness of the computers and internet in everyday life, as well as the workplace. They go on to note “technology deficit(s)” include 1) the inability to utilize computer hardware and software, 2) non-access and involvement with a computer-oriented society, and 3) the inability to improve or acquire skills. Unless students can overcome this deficit, the current and future workforces will become increasingly non-competitive.

To meet what will be a challenge, the authors wanted to identify if Knowle’s model of andragogy can have an impact upon their students.

The study’s findings to the research questions hold promise for both adult learners and their students, for each of the study questions.

1- Increased professional development of teachers increased facility with technology.

2- Increased professional development did increase the amount teachers utilized technology in the classroom.

3- Student utilization of technology increased.

4- Student academic achievement (as measured by a standardized test) increased.

Review:
While reaffirms the assertion that tech savvy educators are critical to overall education of students. And, that andragogy approaches positively affect the ability for educators to translate their skills into a pedagogical methodology.

While not addressed, the results suggest that with motivated educators, on-line training and blended learning may be a more cost-effective vehicle training educators. This is especially true with teachers who are in rural areas.

Citation:
Tan, K. & Waxman, L. (2013) Designing for Virtual Learning Spaces: A Second Life Example. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 4 (2), 72-79. Retrieved from: http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/ijdl/article/view/3687/3662

Summary:
The case study is a design for a virtual campus by using the “Second Life” platform. Through avatars, Second Life purportedly allows students to use most any medium (e.g., language, games, gestures) to communicate and interact with others in a variety of on-line spaces (e.g., classrooms, coffee shops).

The goal for the case study was to create a virtual campus for “recruiting, orientation, teaching, and learning”. Additionally, the campus needed to be available to the largest numbers of visitors.

Project planning meetings were geared to create decisions for specific teams that were responsible for some aspect of the campus. On the campus virtual classrooms were set up for teaching. The virtual library was set upon for transactions between the virtual library staff and the avatar. The staff was to be used by merchandising, design, and marketing students at the school.

Once the virtual campus was completed, it was evaluated by some twenty students and six faculty members. The evaluation phase identified several weaknesses like the programming “failure” of several doors to open correctly. And, some of the transporting methods malfunctioned. These and other program weaknesses were corrected before a final roll-out.

Review:
While the article proved to be not what was expected (i.e., the testing of two on-line learning methods), it did provide insights into an aspect of on-line learning that was enlightening.

Being pretty much ignorant of the virtual campus, my extrapolations may be a bit eccentric. However, vis a vis on-line learning and evaluation could be:
• Assessments of customer service skills and approaches to assisting students in the on-line library. In other words, different groups of library science students can be trained and assessed for their skills under different scenarios.
• The product design for sale at the virtual retail store. In addition to the merchandising elements, groups of design students might be trained in creating clothing and products for the on-line store. Different teaching techniques can be simulated and assessed.

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